GMO Not Safe: Scientific Report from Europe and Studies on Health Dangers of Round-Up (glyphosate)

Monsanto2A scientific report from Europe documents, with references, that there is no scientific consensus on GMO safety.  They point out that there are no epidemiological studies investigating potential effects of GM food consumption on human health. [1]

Claims that scientific and governmental bodies endorse GMO safety are exaggerated or false.  The Royal Society of Canada issued a report critical of regulatory systems for GMO in Canada and declared that it is “scientifically unjustifiable” to presume that GM foods are safe. [2]

A report by the British Medical Association concluded that “many unanswered questions remain” and that “safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available”. [3]

A big reason GMO foods are so dangerous is the vast majority (in terms of amounts in the food chain) are Monsanto Round-Up-Ready seeds (corn and soy especially), that then result in enourmous amounts of Round-Up (glyphosate) being sprayed on the fields and getting into the food chain.  Numerous studies have been published showing the health dangers of glyphosate.

Jan 15, 2014 ,”Glyphosate Commercial Formulation Causes Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Effects and Apoptosis on Human Cells: Differences With its Active Ingredient”.  This study showed severe health risks of increased reactive oxygen species, nitrotyrosine formation, superoxide dismutase activity, and glutathione induction, along with caspase 3/7 activation inducing apoptosis from the commercial preparation of glyphosate (Round-Up), while the isolated glyphosate molecule and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) showed no such toxic effects.  Clearly, the commercial product has added toxicity (added adjuvants) with grave health consequences. [4]

November 2013 the journal Toxicology published the article “Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity. This article points out that glyphosate (Round-up), the major pesticide used in the world, while alone is often found to be safe, but when combined with adjuvants (generally thought to be inert and harmless) is extremely toxic to human cells down to 1 ppm (part per million). Clearly, guidelines on safety, which were based on tests done on the pure glyphosate, are meaningless and need to be revised. [5]

February 2010 in Clinical Toxicology the article “A prospective observational study of the clinical toxicology of gylphosate-containing herbicides in adults with acute self-poisoning” looked at 601 patients poisoned by glyphosate. 19 of them died. Past studies have shown as little as a cup of this supposedly harmless chemical can kill you. Does it really make sense that we now pump 100,000 tons or 200 million pounds of this chemical every year into our environment? [6]

I include here a few graphs since a picture sometimes is worth a thousand words. (embeded in the articles):

–         Natural Revolution

–         Surviving the Middle Class Crash




2. Royal Society of Canada (2001) Elements of precaution: recommendations for the regulation of Food Biotechnology in Canada; An Expert Panel Report on the Future of Food Biotechnology. January.






Dr. Paul





How to Reduce Healthcare Spending and Improve Health at the Same Time

Healtcare SpendingWith the annual cost of health care about to consume 4 trillion dollars annually in the US in the next 10 years and our $300 billion spent each year on pharmaceuticals (equal to the rest of the world combined) we have a health system out of control that is actually making us sicker by the year. 

In pediatrics in particular, we have mandated vaccines that are not just unnecessary (Hep B to newborns of non-infected moms) but dangerous!  Each newborn in the USA gets 250 micrograms of aluminum with their Hep B vaccine at birth and again at 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. To make sure our country’s children continue to get poisoned by this vaccine (others have issues too), pediatricians are rated on their quality of care and if you have a poor immunization rate, this is the equivalent of you being a bad doctor.  With some insurance companies, this carries a financial penalty, and puts a financial incentive to do the wrong thing. Other insurance companies reserve the right to drop you from their provider panel if you rate poorly in health quality measures.  With vaccinations, it’s all or none when it comes to their determination of “quality”. Educated parents who wish to selectively vaccinate given the unique risk factors for their family, would be frowned upon as making a poor decision if you are not giving all the vaccines at the recommended times.

Findings from a National Research Council/Institute of Medicine Report show that the US spends more on health care than does any other country, but our health outcomes are generally getting worse than those of other wealthy nations.  We have more disease and die younger and the disadvantage has been increasing for decades.  We have shorter life expectancies than 16 other countries like Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.  Access to health care is a big factor.  Wealth in the US is not evenly distributed, meaning that more of our population is poor and has poor access to health care.  I would add that the nature of our health care, dominated by pharmaceutical influence, has also had a negative effect on wellness and life-span.

It is time that consumers start using their health dollars wisely.  This will take a creative, thoughtful approach.  I would propose we keep health insurance for catastrophic illness and accidental injury and put the rest of the health dollars toward real prevention and healthy life-style approaches.  If a typical cost to care for a child is $1000/ month then put $300 to health insurance that just covers catastrophic expenses (eg $5,000 deductible for the year) and the additional $700/ month can be pooled for covering expenses that truly improve health (selected vaccines, selected nutritional supplements like Vit D, probiotics, fish oil, and a good multivitamin, and programs that promote good nutrition and exercise, reduced TV viewing, etc.)

I propose rating physicians on how well they utilize health care dollars, looking at real outcomes like dollars spent in ER care, with specialists, and total dollars spent per member per year, not the arbitrary goals set to maintain the status quo for vaccines or well child care visits. Pediatricians are now also being rated on the number of well child visits done in the first two years of life.  I have found that well visits at 2 weeks, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months to be more than adequate (if not excessive) to pick up any health problem.  The AAP (Academy of Pediatrics) and insurance companies want us to do a 15 months visit as well. We are being rated on what percentages of our 2 year olds have ALL the vaccines. Well, if your patients are educated on the real need for Hepatitis B vaccine, and that it has 250 micrograms of aluminum (adult daily maximum is 50 micrograms) they rarely choose to give that one to newborns and in the first two years of life.  One catches Hepatitis B from sex and IV drug use.   

It seems spending more on these costly well-visits and vaccines equates to better health care in their minds.  I’m proposing we encourage all of our families and patients get their complete genetic profile for SNP’s (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) from 23andme, selectively vaccinate for the conditions for which their children are at risk, and spend less on well child visits and more on healthy diets, life-style, and supplementing nutritional deficiencies.

All we need is for a moderate to large company to embrace such an approach and demonstrate the improved health outcomes, and huge cost savings.  This would take courage to go against the status quo.  As an individual, however, we can begin this journey with a new program being pioneered here, at Integrative Pediatrics.  This program is all about education, informed consent, knowing your genetics and nutritional deficiencies and food sensitivities.  Everyone should be taking vitamin D from pre-conception through pregnancy and on.

You can order your 23andme kit (only requires spit and $99 plus shipping) at

(I have no affiliation with 23andme – just impressed with the comprehensive and valuable data for the price).


Dr. Paul 




Ebola- Why Most Don’t Need to Worry, What You Need to Know

EbolaThe August 2014 New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) article “Ebola- Underscoring the Global Disparities in Health Care Resources”, highlights the real issues concerning the current world Ebola crisis. 

The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has now claimed over 1000 lives, mostly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.  Ebola has now also spread to Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country.  Given the case fatality rate of 60% quoted for this outbreak, it tends to bring that sense of panic to the minds of everyone.  

What is important to realize is that this RNA filovirus is only transmitted through body fluids.  It is not respiratory. The images in the world media of the Americans being flown to the USA in plastic containment units, with everyone around them in full body mask and protective gear, misleads us all to thinking that this is a respiratory virus and that just sitting near someone with Ebola will put you at risk.  You only catch Ebola from body fluids; usually feces, vomit, oral secretions, or blood.  This makes sense.  With a fatality rate of about 60% for this current outbreak, if it were respiratory, it would quickly wipe out entire villages and cities.  

The incubation is typically 5-7 days but can be 2-21 days. The symptoms may include fever, weakness, diarrhea, and a rash with about half of those infected developing bleeding and hemorrhage. 

For those living in regions of risk (West Africa), the key is avoiding contact with body fluids, and if handling those who have died from this disease, use gloves when you are in contact with the body, and wash your hands after any contact with anyone who might be infected.  It would be wise to avoid intimacy, where exchange of body fluids could occur, including kissing on the mouth.

This crisis will not likely become a world-wide epidemic, because good hygiene and sanitary systems will prevent spread from person to person.  At the government level, money might best be spent improving water and sanitation systems in the countries suffering from Ebola. 

You can read the article in the New England Journal of Medicine here…



Dr. Paul





MMR Before 3 Associated With Over 300% Increase in Autism- CDC Knew For the Past Decade

CDC-building-AtlantaMy peers and colleagues, the CDC, and AAP are always quick to make statements like “MMR has been proven to be safe, and there is no link between MMR and autism…it’s

been proven”.  Sadly this ignores the reports of thousands of patients (over 100 in my practice) who saw a clear neurological deterioration into autism for their child after the MMR, and occasionally after the 18 month DTaP or some other vaccine.  These scientists cling to the data from studies that they quote as proof of their superior knowledge and wisdom and often make denigrating comments about you the parent or physicians who have other information that they either ignore or are unaware of. 

Dr Brian Hooker has just published (August 2014) the study “Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young African-American boys; a reanalysis of CDC data” in the journal Translational Neurodegeneration that shows several very disturbing things:

   – the CDC manipulated the data to remove the significance known that African-American boys were 3.4 times (340%) more likely to develop autism if they got the MMR before age 3 than if they got it after age 3.

   – The CDC knew of this data since 2003 but chose to cover it up

   – The flawed study with manipulated data has been quoted for a decade as proof that the MMR is not linked with autism when it actually proved the link between MMR and autism. 

I am convinced that similar results would be found for all races and children if more studies were done. 

At Integrative Pediatrics, 99% of parents have been choosing to wait until at least age 3 before giving their child the MMR.  Our experience indicates that for those families who don’t already have an autistic child, there have been no new cases of autism in over 1000 children now over the age of 3 years.  Our experience supports the data of this new study- wait at least until age 3 before giving the MMR.  At the current rates of 1/50 or 1/100 cases of autism, we should have seen 10-20 new cases by age 3 years. Waiting until age 3  along with not giving the Hepatitis B vaccine to your newborn if mom does NOT have Hepatitis B and not giving more than one aluminum containing vaccine on the same day has been the vaccine strategy at Integrative Pediatrics since we opened our doors June 2008. This strategy could potentially prevent 40,000 new cases of autism each year in America. 

Who will you listen to?  Your pediatrician quoting the AAP and CDC or will you start to think for your child before they can think for themselves.  Vaccines are a procedure.  Informed consent is required before any procedure and should include the risks and benefits of the procedure.  If you are not being told that aluminum is toxic and that the MMR has been associated with autism, you are not being informed and your consent for that vaccine is not valid.  Those misinforming you or keeping you uninformed should be liable. Oh but wait, vaccines (the manufacturers and the doctors giving them) are protected under the patriot act.  You cannot get compensation; they are free of all liability.  

Please watch this short video by one of my heroes, Dr Andrew Wakefield, who lost his license to practice medicine for publishing the data that suggested a link between the MMR and autism.  What they did to this man effectively silenced all research that might have led to the truth on the association between vaccines, the MMR in particular, and autism and the other brain disorders we see in epidemic proportions today.

You can watch this very informative video on the history of testing on African-American children here…   

Here is the link to the statement from Dr. Hooker. At the time of this blog posting, the statement had been removed by the publisher, showing how far the grasps of big pharma can reach.

However, I have captured the article before it was removed, fearing this exact thing. I am posting it in it’s entirety below.


Dr. Paul

 Everything below this line is directly copied from the publication by Dr. Brian Hooker.

Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data

Brian S Hooker

Author Affiliations

Simpson University, Redding, CA, USA

Translational Neurodegeneration 2014, 3:16  doi:10.1186/2047-9158-3-16

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Received: 17 April 2014
Accepted: 5 August 2014
Published: 8 August 2014

© 2014 Hooker; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.



A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses.


The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson’s chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories.


When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter.


The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis.


Autism; Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine


Autism is defined by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities [1]. Autism incidence has risen dramatically over the past two decades [2] and it has recently been reported that one in sixty-eight children have this disorder [3]. In addition to these core deficits, autism has also been characterized by many other comorbid conditions including gastrointestinal issues, sleep issues, eating disorders and sensory processing issues [4].

It has been estimated that as many as 62% of children with autism experience a period of regression during early childhood, characterized by loss of previously acquired skills [5]. This period has been reported as ranging between 6 and 36 months of age with the typical age of regression between 18 and 24 months [6]. This period of regression occurs within the same time period that children in the United States typically receive their required vaccinations and thus there have been many studies regarding the incidence of autism and the receipt of specific vaccines. One of the primary concerns has been the timing of the administration of the first measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine.

The relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism was first hypothesized by Wakefield et al.[7] in 1999 after the observation of a regressive phenotype of autism that appeared in general after the administration of the first MMR vaccine. Although several studies have affirmed such a relationship between the MMR vaccine and neurodevelopmental disorders including autism [8,9], many other studies purport no statistical relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism incidence. The latter studies have been performed using cohorts from Denmark [10], Japan [11] and Poland [12], as well as the MMR vaccine and pervasive developmental disorder in Canada[13]. In addition, in 2004, Destefano et al. [14] published a paper describing a case–control study completed on children, in metropolitan Atlanta, who had been born between 1986 and 1993. Within this study, the age at the first MMR vaccine was assessed as a factor in the incidence of autism. Using conditional logistic regression, with first MMR age as the independent variable and autism incidence as the dependent variable, the study authors assessed relative risk for obtaining an autism diagnosis for those children receiving the first MMR vaccine before and after 18 months, 24 months and 36 months of age. Destefano et al. [14] found a statistically significant relative risk of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 – 2.14) at the 36 month cut-off (i.e., in a comparison of children receiving the MMR before versus after 36 months). Rather than concluding that the first MMR vaccine could be playing a causal role in autism in these children, the study authors instead attributed the increased risk to greater numbers of autistic children receiving timely vaccinations in order to participate in State of Georgia special education services.

In this paper, we present the results of a cohort study using the same data from the Destefano et al. [14] analysis. The focus of the current study is differences in results in specific gender and race groups.


Cohort data

Cohort data were obtained directly as a “restricted access data set” from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) via a Data Use Agreement. Data were deidentified by the CDC in accordance with Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) prior to receipt by the study authors. Use of the CDC specifically for the study described herein was approved by the Simpson University Institutional Review Board, in accordance with U.S. Federal regulations.

Study population

As reported by Destefano et al. [14] (CDC) in the original publication, “Children with autism were identified by the CDC from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP), a multiple-source, population-based surveillance program that monitors the occurrence of selected developmental disabilities among children in the 5-county metropolitan Atlanta area”. And further, “Autism cases were identified via screening and abstraction of source files at schools, hospitals, clinics, and specialty providers”. Of the cases identified, vaccination records were located for 660 children. Control children were chosen from “regular” education programs and were within the same age group and schools of attendance or neighboring school as cases. Children missing a vaccination form or with incomplete vaccination forms (where the forms did not list at least 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertusussis vaccine by 2 years of age or at least 1 MMR vaccine at any age) were excluded from the study. Children with religious or medical exemptions were not excluded from the study. The listed exclusions yielded a cohort size of 624 cases and 1824 controls.

Vaccination histories

Vaccination records were abstracted as described previously [14] from standardized state immunization forms that are required for all children who attend school and early intervention programs in Georgia.

Demographic data

Demographic data including birthdate, gender and race were obtained for both case and control children via birth certificates or registration forms kept as a part of each child’s permanent school record. Georgia state birth certificate information was used to further obtain each child’s birthweight. Although actual birthweight data were not released by the CDC, case and control children were lumped into birthweight categories: under 1500 grams, between 1500 and 2500 grams and over 2500 grams. All individuals less than 3 years of age at the time of testing (1996) were excluded from the analysis.

Statistical analyses

The Pearson’s chi -squared test contained in the SAS® software was utilized for current statistical analyses, and a two-sided p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. This is in contrast to the original Destefano et al. [14] (CDC) study, where a case–control study design was used, where 3 control children were matched to each case child, and analyzed using conditional logistic regression dichotomized for the three age cut-offs at 18, 24 and 36 months. Pearson’s chi-squared is, in general, a more conservative analysis and therefore chosen for the present study. However, our results were also confirmed using a conditional logistic regression design similar to the Destefano et al. [14] (CDC) study. In the present study, frequencies of cases were determined for first MMR ages of less than versus greater than 18 months, 24 months and 36 months in each separate analysis. When accounting for cases in the cohort that excluded low birth weight (<2500 g) African American children, it was necessary to report results at 31 months rather than 36 months in order to avoid reporting data from age categories or “cells” that possessed less than 5 individuals.


Table 1 shows the relationship between MMR timing and autism incidence for the entire cohort. As can be observed, there is a statistically significant effect for the cohort at 36 months (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.14, p = 0.0289). However, this result appears to be caused by a stronger relationship (RR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.57, p = 0.0138) seen exclusively in boys. Girls did not show any relationship between autism and MMR timing at any age group studied.

Table 1. Fisher’s exact analysis for the entire cohort

When looking specifically at African American children (Table 2), the relationship between MMR timing and autism incidence became more profound (RR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.25-4.22, p = 0.0060) at 36 months of age. Again, this result was exclusively found in boys who showed statistically significant effects at both 24 months (RR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.09-2.77, p = 0.0200) and 36 months (RR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.50-7.51, p = 0.0019) of age. This effect again was not seen in females.

Table 2. Fisher’s exact analysis for African American children only

Table 3 shows results for the entire cohort excluding African American children. As can be observed, there is no statistically significant effect for any of the subclasses in either gender or age cut-off for MMR uptake. This shows that the effect observed overall is due to the very strong “signal” seen exclusively in African American boys. In other words, the strong, statistically significant relationship between younger first MMR age and higher autism incidence in African American males may be skewing the results for larger, more general populations that include African American males (e.g., all boys and all African Americans) to show a “relationship” that is actually only in African American males.

Table 3. Fisher’s exact analysis excluding African American children

Through investigating the cohort demographic data, it was found that there was a higher proportion of low birth weight African Americans compared to the entire cohort, specifically within the portion of the cohort that possessed a Georgia state birth certificate. The number of individuals with a birth weight under 2500 g for African Americans was 11.9% as compared to the total cohort at 8.66%. A final analysis was completed on African American children in the “birth certificate” cohort, excluding low birth weight individuals (Table 4). Results were obtained at 18 months, 24 months and 31 months, rather than 36 months, as there were insufficient cases (less than 5) at the 36 month mark to carry out the analysis. Even at 31 months, there were insufficient cases of African American females. Thus, these results are not included in the analysis. Even excluding low birth weigth individuals, a relationship was seen between first MMR age and autism incidence at 31 months for African American males (RR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.08-6.46, p = 0.0280).

Table 4. Fisher’s exact analysis for African American children excluding low birth weight


The results show a strong relationship between child age at the administration of the first MMR and autism incidence exclusively for African American boys which could indicate a role of the vaccine in the etiology of autism within this population group. This particular analysis was not completed in the original Destefano et al. [14] (CDC) study. Although the previous study considered MMR timing and African Americans in general, no statistically significant effect was observed. This is in contrast to our result for African Americans in general, because the CDC study limited the total African American cohort to include only those individuals who possessed a valid State of Georgia birth certificate which decreased the statistical power of their analysis. Although a statistically significant relationship between first MMR age and autism incidence was seen in the general (all races) population within the earlier Destefano et al. [14] study, the coauthors interpreted this result as an artifact of “healthcare seeking behavior” citing that autistic children would receive their vaccines earlier in order to enroll in State of Georgia early intervention programs. However, it is highly unlikely that this type of behavior would be seen exclusively in African American males and thus, alternative hypotheses must be explored, including the possibility that the MMR vaccine may be causally linked to autism in African American males.

It should be noted that a recent publication has shown that the prevalence of autism in African Americans is nearly 25% higher than that of whites [15]. This value was obtained when CDC data were appropriately analyzed based on socioeconomic status. This could be due to issues regarding vitamin D status with African Americans as it has been estimated that vitamin D sufficiency among whites is between 30-60% but is only 5-10% among African Americans [16]. Patrick et al. [17] have very recently proposed a mechanism for the link between vitamin D status and autism via selective production of serotonin in the brain. Disruption of the serotonergic system is a very consistent observation with autism [18] as serotonin promotes prosocial behavior and proper assessment of emotional social cues [19].

Vitamin D has a multitude of other physiological functions in vivo. Vitamin D receptor has been found in many different tissues including the small intestine, colon, osteoblasts, activated T and B lymphocytes, islet cells and most organs in the body [20]. Vitamin D has also been implicated in many important physiological processing including modulation of activated T and B lymphocyte function [21,22] and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease [23]. Lower vitamin D status African American females are more susceptible to lupus [24]. Also, Epstein-Barr Virus antibody titers are significantly higher in African American youth as compared to compared to white youth[25] which may be a consequence of vitamin D insufficiency. Also, childhood adversity, which could be more prevalent in African American boys, can have lasting immune consequences [26].

Gallagher et al. [27] have reported previously regarding the Hepatitis B vaccine and autism in neonates, specifically within the 1997 to 2002 time period when this vaccine series still contained thimerosal. Regarding non-whites they specifically stated in the abstract, “Non-white boys bore greater risk” of receiving an autism diagnosis if they received the Hep B as neonates. The data reported in this paper show a statistically significant risk ratio of 5.53 (p = 0.019) for black boys as opposed to white boys who had a risk of 1.87 (p = 0.171) which was not statistically significant, when looking at autism in those infants that received their first Hep B vaccine during the first month of life.

A strength of the current study is that the MADDSP data were collected independently of the design used in the analysis. These data were collected as part of the diagnoses individuals received as part of their participation in special education program and as such, the healthcare providers in no way were thinking about the potential association between vaccine exposures and potential health outcomes. Also the current study controlled for a possible association between low birth weight individuals and autism as in the final analysis on the African American cohort, all children of birthweight less than 2500 grams were eliminated from the cohort. Although low birthweight (LBW) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of autism [28], insufficient information existed within the study population to assess the effect of LBW on autism incidence or any interaction between LBW and MMR timing.

The weaknesses of the current study include the age groups selected for autism cases and controls within the original data set. The average age to receive an autism diagnosis has been reported (using the CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink) as between 3.7 [29] and 4.2 years of age [30]. However, the CDC’s dataset included controls as young as 3 years of age who could have been “too young” to receive an autism diagnosis. Accordingly, there is a greater than 50% probability that some of the controls could have later received an autism diagnoses, thus skewing the analysis to the null (“no effect”) hypothesis. However, when the analysis was recompleted using controls that were six years of age or older, very similar results were obtained (data not shown). Also, information on the timing of other infant vaccines was not released by the CDC and thus it was impossible to control this factor in the current analysis. In addition, socioeconomic factors were not assessed in the current analysis. Thus, any differences in “healthcare seeking behavior” among individuals vaccinated ontime versus late could not be assessed.


The present study provides new evidence of a statistically significant relationship between the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism incidence in African American males. Using a straight-forward, Pearson’s chi-squared analysis on the cohort used in the Destefano et al. [14] (CDC) study, timing of the first MMR vaccine before and after 24 months of age and 36 months of age showed relative risks for autism diagnoses of 1.73 and 3.36, respectively. Future studies should be completed to further evaluate the relationship of first MMR timing and neurodevelopmental maladies, including autism, especially in underserved populations.

Routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. However, consideration should be made in the current United States vaccination schedule for genetic subpopulations that may be associated with vaccine adverse events. Additional research is required to better understand the relationship between MMR exposure and autism in African American males.


CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CI: Confidence Interval; Hep B: Hepatitis B vaccine; MADDSP: Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program; MMR: measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; RR: Relative Risk.

Competing interests

Dr. Hooker has been involved in vaccine/biologic litigation.

Authors’ contributions

BH was the main manuscript writer and computer programmer.


Funding for this research was provided for by a grant from Focus Autism, Inc. Data for case and control children were provided in a de-identified form by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


  1. Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR: A Comparison of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for the Quantitative Evaluation of Autism.

J Ment Health Res Intellect Disabil 2013, 6:255-267. 

  1. Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve LA, Cohen RA, Blumberg SJ, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Visser S, Kogan MD: Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008.

Pediatrics 2011, 127:1034-1042. 

  1. Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year Principal I: Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years – autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Surveill Summ 2014, 63 Suppl 2:1-21. 

  1. Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR: A prospective cross-sectional cohort assessment of health, physical, and behavioral problems in autism spectrum disorders.

Maedica 2012, 7:193-200. 

  1. Kern JK, Geier DA, Sykes LK, Geier MR: Evidence of neurodegeneration in autism spectrum disorder.

Transl Neurodegeneration 2013, 2:17. 

  1. Davidovitch M, Glick L, Holtzman G, Tirosh E, Safir MP: Developmental regression in autism: maternal perception.

J Autism Dev Disord 2000, 30:113-119. 

  1. Wakefield AJ, Montgomery SM: Autism, viral infection and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination.

Isr Med Assoc J 1999, 1:183-187. 

  1. Geier DA, Geier MR: A comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and mercury doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the population prevalence of autism.

Med Sci Monit 2004, 10:PI33-39. 

  1. Geier DA, Geier MR: Pediatric MMR Vaccination Safety.

Int Pediatr 2003, 18:108-113. 

  1. Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Olsen J, Melbye M:A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism.

N Engl J Med 2002, 347:1477-1482. 

  1. Uno Y, Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Aleksic B, Ozaki N: The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case–control study in Asia.

Vaccine 2012, 30:4292-4298. 

  1. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kieltyka A, Majewska R: Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children: a case–control study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010, 29:397-400. 

  1. Fombonne E, Zakarian R, Bennett A, Meng L, McLean-Heywood D: Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations.

Pediatrics 2006, 118:e139-150. 

  1. DeStefano F, Bhasin TK, Thompson WW, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Boyle C: Age at first measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children with autism and school-matched control subjects: a population-based study in metropolitan atlanta.

Pediatrics 2004, 113:259-266. 

  1. Durkin MS, Maenner MJ, Meaney FJ, Levy SE, DiGuiseppi C, Nicholas JS, Kirby RS, Pinto-Martin JA, Schieve LA: Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder: evidence from a U.S. cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2010, 5:e11551. 

  1. Ginde AA, Liu MC, Camargo CA Jr: Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988–2004.

Arch Intern Med 2009, 169:626-632. 

  1. Patrick RP, Ames BN: Vitamin D hormone regulates serotonin synthesis. Part 1: relevance for autism.

FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2014, 28:2398-2413. 

  1. Zafeiriou DI, Ververi A, Vargiami E: The serotonergic system: its role in pathogenesis and early developmental treatment of autism.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2009, 7:150-157. 

  1. Crockett MJ: The neurochemistry of fairness: clarifying the link between serotonin and prosocial behavior.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009, 1167:76-86. 

  1. Holick MF: Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease.

Am J Clin Nutr 2004, 80:1678S-1688S. 

  1. Tsoukas CD, Provvedini DM, Manolagas SC: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: a novel immunoregulatory hormone.

Science 1984, 224:1438-1440. 

  1. Bhalla AK, Amento EP, Clemens TL, Holick MF, Krane SM: Specific high-affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: presence in monocytes and induction in T lymphocytes following activation.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983, 57:1308-1310. 

  1. Cantorna MT, Munsick C, Bemiss C, Mahon BD: 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol prevents and ameliorates symptoms of experimental murine inflammatory bowel disease.

J Nutr 2000, 130:2648-2652. 

  1. Hoffecker BM, Raffield LM, Kamen DL, Nowling TK: Systemic lupus erythematosus and vitamin D deficiency are associated with shorter telomere length among African Americans: a case–control study.

PLoS One 2013, 8:e63725. 

  1. Ford JL, Stowe RP: Racial-ethnic differences in Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers among U.S. children and adolescents.

Ann Epidemiol 2013, 23:275-280. 

  1. Fagundes CP, Glaser R, Hwang BS, Malarkey WB, Kiecolt-Glaser JK: Depressive symptoms enhance stress-induced inflammatory responses.

Brain Behav Immun 2013, 31:172-176. 

  1. Gallagher CM, Goodman MS: Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997–2002.

J Toxic Environ Health A 2010, 73:1665-1677. 

  1. Singh GK, Kenney MK, Ghandour RM, Kogan MD, Lu MC: Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight.

Depression Res Treat 2013, 2013:570743. 

  1. Verstraeten T, Davis RL, DeStefano F, Lieu TA, Rhodes PH, Black SB, Shinefield H, Chen RT:Vaccine Safety Datalink T: Safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a two-phased study of computerized health maintenance organization databases.

Pediatrics 2003, 112:1039-1048. 

  1. Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR: A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.

Transl Neurodegeneration 2013, 2:25. 


CDC knew MMR link to autism so manipulated data to remove it’s significance



Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data

Brian S Hooker

Author Affiliations

Translational Neurodegeneration 2014, 3:16  doi:10.1186/2047-9158-3-16

Published: 8 August 2014



A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses.


The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson’s chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories.


When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter.


The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis.


Autism; Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine 


A Study by Focus Autism Foundation Finds: CDC Whistleblower Reveals Widespread Manipulation of Scientific Data and Top-Down Pressure on CDC Scientists to Support the Fraudulent Application of Government Policies on Vaccine Safety.

WATCHUNG, NJ–(Marketwired – August 18, 2014) – A top research scientist working for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) played a key role in helping Dr. Brian Hooker of theFocus Autism Foundation uncover data manipulation by the CDC that obscured a higher incidence of autism in African-American boys. The whistleblower came to the attention of Hooker, a PhD in biochemical engineering, after he had made a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request for original data on the DeStefano et al MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) and autism study.

Dr. Hooker’s study, published August 8 in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Translational Neurodegenerationshows that African-American boys receiving their first MMR vaccine before 36 months of age are 3.4 times more likely to develop autism vs. after 36 months.

According to Dr. Hooker, the CDC whistleblower informant — who wishes to remain anonymous — guided him to evidence that a statistically significant relationship between the age the MMR vaccine was first given and autism incidence in African-American boys was hidden by CDC researchers. After data were gathered on 2,583 children living in Atlanta, Georgia who were born between 1986 and 1993, CDC researchers excluded children that did not have a valid State of Georgia birth certificate — reducing the sample size being studied by 41%. Hooker explains that by introducing this arbitrary criteria into the analysis, the cohort size was sharply reduced, eliminating the statistical power of the findings and negating the strong MMR-autism link in African American boys.

Dr. Hooker has worked closely with the CDC whistleblower, and he viewed highly sensitive documents related to the study via Congressional request from U.S. Representative Darrell Issa, Chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee. The CDC documents from Congress and discussions that Hooker had with the whistleblower reveal widespread manipulation of scientific data and top-down pressure on CDC scientists to support fraudulent application of government policies on vaccine safety. Based on raw data used in the 2004 DeStefano et al study obtained under FOIA, Dr. Hooker found that the link between MMR vaccination and autism in African-American boys was obscured by the introduction of irrelevant and unnecessary birth certificate criteria — ostensibly to reduce the size of the study.

The results of the original study first appeared in the journal Pediatrics which receives financial support from vaccine makers via advertising and direct donations, according to a CBS News report. The DeStefano et al study is widely used by the CDC and other public health organizations to dismiss any link between vaccines and autism — a neurological disorder on the rise.

Dr. Hooker stated “The CDC knew about the relationship between the age of first MMR vaccine and autism incidence in African-American boys as early as 2003, but chose to cover it up.” The whistleblower confirmed this.


Age at First Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Children With Autism and School-Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study in Metropolitan Atlanta

  1. Frank DeStefano, MD, MPH*
  2. Tanya Karapurkar Bhasin, MPH,
  3. William W. Thompson, PhD*
  4. Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, MD§,
  5. Coleen Boyle, PhD§

+Author Affiliations

1.        *National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia 2.        Battelle Memorial Institute, Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, Atlanta, Georgia 3.        §National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia


  1.  To compare ages at first measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination between children with autism and children who did not have autism in the total population and in selected subgroups, including children with regression in development.
  2.  A case-control study was conducted in metropolitan Atlanta. Case children (N = 624) were identified from multiple sources and matched to control children (N = 1824) on age, gender, and school. Vaccination data were abstracted from immunization forms required for school entry. Records of children who were born in Georgia were linked to Georgia birth certificates for information on maternal and birth factors. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs).
  3.  The overall distribution of ages at MMR vaccination among children with autism was similar to that of matched control children; most case (70.5%) and control children (67.5%) were vaccinated between 12 and 17 months of age. Similar proportions of case and control children had been vaccinated before 18 or before 24 months. No significant associations for either of these age cutoffs were found for specific case subgroups, including those with evidence of developmental regression. More case (93.4%) than control children (90.6%) were vaccinated before 36 months (OR: 1.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.04–2.14 in the total sample; OR: 1.23; 95% confidence interval: 0.64–2.36 in the birth certificate sample). This association was strongest in the 3- to 5-year age group.
  4.  Similar proportions of case and control children were vaccinated by the recommended age or shortly after (ie, before 18 months) and before the age by which atypical development is usually recognized in children with autism (ie, 24 months). Vaccination before 36 months was more common among case children than control children, especially among children 3 to 5 years of age, likely reflecting immunization requirements for enrollment in early intervention programs.